Psychological or motivational hedonism claims that only pleasure or pain motivates us ethical or evaluative hedonism claims that only pleasure has worth or value and only pain or displeasure has disvalue or the opposite of worth these two matters can also pull in opposite directions your pain of being once bitten has non-instrumental. Socrates concludes that there is an inextricable link between injustice and pain, the very opposite of pleasure he then asks polus whether he would welcome what is painful over what is pleasant socrates: nothing very subtlebeing self-controlled and master of oneself, ruling the pleasures pain” (493e3) again, callicles is not. Pleasure, in the inclusive usages important in thought about well-being, experience, and mind, includes the affective positivity of all joy, gladness, liking, and enjoyment – all our feeling good or happy. [a] the self-indulgent man is so called because he is pained more than he ought at not getting pleasant things (even his pain being caused by pleasure), and [b] the temperate man is so called because he is not pained at the absence of what is pleasant and at his abstinence from it. Blackboard notes on mill, utilitarianism, chapter 2 opening mill on the good “quantity of pleasure being equal, pushpin [a simple children’s game like spin-the-bottle] is as and gets pleasure from experiencing pain, in a mix with pleasure predominating i mean the person oddly prefers what is less pleasant for example, maybe if i.
Socrates observe, protarchus, the nature of the position which you are now going to take from philebus, and what the other position is which i maintain, and which, if you do not approve of it, is to be controverted by you shall you and i sum up the two sides protarchus by all means soc philebus was saying that enjoyment and pleasure and delight, and the class of feelings akin to them. The proof of socrates' claim about pain and pleasure as not being opposite. If you are, and if you are unable to show any good or evil which does not end in pleasure and pain, hear the consequences:—if what you say is true, then the argument is absurd which affirms that a man often does evil knowingly, when he might abstain, because he is seduced and overpowered by pleasure or again, when you say that a man. Phaedo not at all, but some were present, even many were quite accustomed to being with socrates, meeting at dawn in the courtroom, to what seems to be the opposite, pain, in that they will not come to a person at the same time, but if someone pursues the one and gets it.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility utility is defined in various ways, usually in terms of the well-being of sentient entities jeremy bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, described utility as the sum of all pleasure that results from an action, minus the suffering of anyone involved in the action. It can be taught and that he can do it socrates claims that it can’t be taught but this the opposite of acting foolishly is acting temperately (332b) (5) whatever is done in a certain way is done through the agency of a certain “you pursue pleasure as being good avoid pain as being bad” (354c. Book ix socrates - glaucon that is certain, said glaucon, they are the opposite extremes, he said, for one is the very best and the other is the very worst say, then, is not pleasure opposed to pain true and there is a neutral state which is neither pleasure nor pain. Socrates' second argument, the theory of recollection, shows that it is possible to draw information out of a person who seems not to have any knowledge of a subject prior to his being questioned about it (a priori knowledge) this person must have gained this knowledge in a prior life, and is now merely recalling it from memory. Although he did not claim that this is a precise picture, he gave his listeners enough information so that they could conceive of the nature and vastness of the other worlds196 socrates allayed many of their fears and shared extensive knowledge with his friends.
Lines 348c-362a summary socrates returns the discussion to where it had been at 334c, before the near- breakdown of dialogue protagoras, as socrates reminds both him and us, had argued that the five aspects of virtue—wisdom, temperance, courage, justice and holiness—are not synonyms. Socrates' third argument proves out by his making a distinction between pure (positive) pleasure and illusory pleasure (a kind of pleasure which is reliant upon an antecedent pain) such an illusory pleasure might be that of eating (because we are hungry), or drinking, or, one assumes, any sort of sensual pleasure. Pleasure, experiences pleasures and pains at the same time14 thus, socrates con- cludes that pleasure cannot be equivalent to the good condition, nor pain to the bad condition, and so ‘‘the pleasant is different from the good’’ 15.
5 that being so, is it not natural for the body to dissolve easily, and for the soul to be altogether indissoluble, or nearly so every pleasure and every pain provides, as it were, another nail to rivet the soul to the body and to weld them together building on this, socrates claims that we do not know of any other cause of. Plato & socrates (born 470, died proof that he is not a teacher his final words suggest that he was very poor indeed: he requests that his friend crito pay off a small pleasure, and how curiously related to pain, which might be thought to be the opposite of it for they never come. Socrates also points out that only a philosopher who does not fear death can truly be said to possess courage and self-control if everyone but philosophers fear death, the only reason a brave non-philosopher would face death would be through a fear of something worse than death.
What 'proof' does socrates offer for his claim that justice is doing one's own work and not meddling with what isn't one's own (433b) is justice like health in being good for its own sake would only a fool or a lunatic not want to be healthy what is the argument for thinking that pure pleasure is not merely the absence of pain and. Also, some people might claim that pain feels good to them, but they would be lying it is only the pleasure itself that is obtained from the pain that feels good to him/her while the pain stands alone by itself as feeling bad. Great and frequent reverses can crush and mar our bliss both by the pain they cause and by the hindrance they offer to many activities yet nevertheless even in adversity nobility shines through, when a man endures repeated and severe misfortune with patience, not owing to insensibility but from generosity and greatness of soul. 3 that pleasure is the good and therefore ought to be pursued5 we are thus “anti-hedonists,” not by invoking irony or insincerity, but by following the letter of the text: a close reading of the protagoras shows that socrates, in the course of the discussion, never commits himself to any form of hedonism at.
Mill’s critique of bentham’s utilitarianism pain and pleasure the fact that the fool and the pig enjoy more pleasure than socrates cannot, mill believes, offset the fact that the quality of socrates’ pleasure is almost infinitely higher than theirs. Let us not, then, be induced to believe that pure pleasure is the cessation of pain, or pain of pleasure no still, the more numerous and violent pleasures which reach the soul through the body are generally of this sort --they are reliefs of pain. The ethics of epicurus around the time of socrates were deeply concerned with the question of what constitutes the good life for the human being socrates himself held that the good life is the virtuous life, the bed and the table not only is the removal of pain a pleasure, it is the highest pleasure as plutarch reports,. Thus, because, when one eats, bodily pleasure and pain exist concurrently, against the fact that one cannot at once fare both well and poorly, it follows logically that the pleasure is not equivalent to the good, nor is pain synonymous with evil.
Socrates’ claim is however that there are some pleasures that are not relative, because they concern higher parts of the soul that are not bound to the relativity produced by physical things these are the philosophical pleasures—the pure pleasure of coming to a greater understanding of reality. Plato's philebus sean p o'connell fordham university i in earlier dialogues, such as the phaedo, socrates of pleasure and pain is not so simple—or simplistic— to be sought philebus does not claim that all creatures do in fact seek it, but he does hold that 'good' and 'pleasant' have the same.